Resistors are one of the most common passive electronic components. The function of resistors in a circuit is to resist the flow of electrical current.
Material Composition of Electronic Components
Electronics are complex manufactured items that contain up to hundreds of homogeneous materials. Undoubtedly, technology evolves rapidly, and engineers invent new patents every day, with new materials! What is the material composition of some of the most common passive and active electronic components?
Material Composition of Passive Electronic Components
There are many various types of resistors with different compositions. This table presents the most common types of resistors and gives examples of their material composition:
|Types of Resistors||Structure and Examples of Material Composition|
|Carbon Composition Resistors (CCR)|
|Metal Film Resistors|
|Carbon Film Resistors|
|Metal Oxide Film Resistors|
|Wire-Wound Resistors (WW)|
Resource: Physics and Radio-Electronics
There are different types of capacitors based on their material compositions. This table describes the most common capacitors and gives examples of their composition:
|Types of Capacitors||Structure and Examples of Material Composition|
|Plastic Film Capacitors|
|Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors|
|Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors|
|Niobium Electrolytic Capacitors|
- Physics and Radio-Electronics
- J.L. Stevens, A.C. Geiculescu, T.F. Strange, Dielectric Aluminum Oxides: Nano-Structural Features and Composites at the Wayback Machine
- T. Kárník, Avx, Niobium Oxide For Capacitor Manufacturing, Metal 2008, 13. –15. 5. 2008
Capacitors are another example of passive electronic components. In electronic circuits, capacitors store energy in the form of an electrical charge and release it whenever required.
There are different types of inductors based on the material composition of their cores. Here you can find examples of these materials:
|Types of Inductors||Examples of Material Composition of Inductor’s Core|
|Air Core or Ceramic Core Inductors|
|Iron Core Inductors|
|Ferrite Core Inductors|
|Iron Powder Inductors|
|Laminated Core Inductors|
Inductors store energy in the form of a magnetic field when an electric current passes through them. They consist of conducting material, normally insulated copper wire, winding around a core.
Material Composition of Active Electronic Components
Most active electronic components consist of semiconductors. Semiconductors possess electrical properties between conductors and insulators. The most commonly used material in semiconductors is silicon (Si). Other semiconductor materials in electronic devices are:
- Germanium (Ge)
- Gallium arsenide (GaAs)
- Silicon carbide (SiC)
- Gallium Nitride (GaN)
- Gallium phosphide (GaP)
- Cadmium sulfide (CdS)
- Lead sulfide (PbS)
The table below explains the structure of two types of transistors and gives examples of material compositions for each one:
|Types of Transistors||Structure and Examples of Material Composition|
|Field Effect (Unipolar) Transistors|
Resource: Engineering360 Transistor Information
A transistor is a semiconductor electronic component that can perform either as an amplifier or a switch. There are different types of transistors available in the market.
Here you can find examples of material compositions of every element of a diode:
|Types of Diode||Examples of Material Composition|
|Lead Frame Plating|
|Lead Plating Finish|
Resource: Diodes Incorporated – Part numbers AZ23C10 and 1N5711WS.
A diode is a semiconductor electronic component that allows the current to flow in one direction. Different elements in the structure of a diode consist of various materials.
Material Composition of Electronic Integrated Circuits (ICs) Components
You can find examples of materials in every element of an integrated circuit in this table:
|Elements of an Integrated Circuit (IC)||Examples of Material Composition|
|Connector between different components|
|Wire leading from the chip to the mounting package|
An Integrated Circuit (IC) consists of different electronic components such as resistors, transistors, and capacitors implanted onto a small chip of semiconducting material. Each element of Integrated Circuits contains various materials.
Classifications of Electronic Components
There are two types of electronic components:
- Passive Electronic components
- Active Electronic Components
What are Passive Electronic Components?
Passive electronic components do not need an external power source to operate. However, they can not provide energy on their own. They receive energy from active components and dissipate, absorb, or store it. The most common passive components are:
What are Active Electronic Components?
Active electronic components are fundamental components for the operation of any device. They require an external power source to supply and control energy in electronic circuits. Most active components contain semiconductors. The most common active components consisting of semiconductors are:
- Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Material Composition and Regulated Hazardous Substances in Electronic Components
Some of the materials in electronic components contain hazardous substances like:
Environmental regulations worldwide tend to restrict the use of these substances of concern. Examples of these restrictions are:
- RoHS on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment
- EU REACH with the Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) and the SCIP notification
- California Proposition 65 Chemical list
- The US TSCA-PBT – Toxic Substances Control Act – addressing several Persistent, Bio-accumulative, and Toxic substances in articles
We are here to help you comply with these environmental obligations. Reach out to the Enviropass team for any questions regarding environmental compliance assessments of your electrical and electronic products.